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对《道德经》中一段话的释义  

2016-08-26 12:36:17|  分类: 青灯书隅 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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对《道德经》有争议一段话的释义 - 赵炜 - 秋上庭廊月徊林
        老子《道德经》第六十九章有一段话:“行无行、攘无臂、扔无敌、执无兵,祸莫大于无适”。两种解释如下:
        其一,布阵不见行列,呼喊不用手臂,临敌视而不见,兵器犹如不执。最大的灾祸是临阵无所适从。
        其二,行路不见行伍之人,口角不会胳膊动粗,不自设敌人对峙,百姓拿的不是兵器。最大的灾祸是人心不能归附。
        我再补充释义:
        (1)行无行,即行事于“无行”之事。比如三国魏延的建议是偷越子午谷奔袭汉中,朱棣在靖难之役越过山东直攻南京,穆罕默德把70艘战船从外海越过山地与峡谷直接拉到金角湾攻占拜占庭。常理不行之事而行之,即行无行。在公开课也是一样,有的教师选择别人不愿意上的内容,其实往往更容易成功。《圣经》说,要走窄门,因为那是生门。
        (2)攘无臂,即推开就像没有手臂一样轻如。比如我们熟知的“四两拨千斤”,老子的柔弱胜刚强也是这个道理,“天下之至柔,驰骋天下之至坚”。萨尔浒战役,后金努尔哈赤以六万军队对明军四路二十万合围,以各个击破战术歼灭了明军主力。
        (3)扔无敌,抛掷长矛不作正面之敌。不刻意、不强制行事,“善胜敌者不与”。比如林彪的三三制、一点两面、三猛战术,而不是正面人海战术,因而四野所向无敌。明末崇祯急功近利逼迫洪承畴放弃长期的消耗战而急于出兵,因而仓促出战而败北,从而失去经营多年的辽东。
        (4)执无兵,即随意成剑,禅宗的无我,海德格尔的非“在手”而是“应手”状态。也是《孙子兵法?谋攻篇》的“上兵伐谋,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其下攻城,不战而屈人之兵。”比如二战之后的不战不和与冷战思维,都是在玩不战而屈人之兵的谋略。
        (5)祸莫大于无适,最大的灾祸就是内部掣肘,即为无适。比如北宋的杨业之死,就源于王侁与潘美的掣肘;南宋岳飞、明末袁崇焕都是失败于内部的掣肘。无数战例证明,内部掣肘这种邦尼效应往往是失败之根源。
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